The Clean Sky 2 TRANSCEND (Technology Review of Alternative and Novel Sources of Clean Energy with Next-generation Drivetrains) Coordination and Support Action identifies what alternative energy sources for aviation and novel aircraft propulsion can contribute to mitigating climate change and achieving the environmental goals for 2050. In addition roadmaps and strategic recommendations for alternative energy sources and novel propulsion towards 2050 have been developed to ensure that the potential contributions become reality.


J. Kos, B. Peerlings, M.N.A. Lim, W.F. Lammen, J.A. Posada Duque, E.S. van der Sman, Novel propulsion and alternative fuels for aviation towards 2050, Promising options and steps to take (TRANSCEND Deliverable D3.2), NLR-CR-2022-094, 2022

Workshop on Sustainable Aviation Fuels, held on 15 October 2020.

Six promising sustainable aviation fuels and associated low-to-zero carbon propulsion concepts selected, with literature study and ecological balance sheets.

Workshop on Hydrogen-powered propulsion for aircraft, held on 7 October 2021.


J. Kos, P. Osseweijer, T. Zill, European TRANSCEND for Novel Aircraft Propulsion and Alternative Fuels Roadmaps towards 2050, NLR-TP-2020-171, Aerospace Europe Conference, Bordeaux, paper 00421, 2020.

W.F. Lammen, B. Peerlings, E.S. van der Sman, J. Kos, Hydrogen-powered propulsion aircraft: conceptual sizing and fleet level impact analysis, NLR-TP-2022-233, 9th European Conference for Aerospace Sciences (EUCASS), Lille, 2022

Johan Kos, John Posada-Duque, Bram Peerlings, Nora ben Salah, Nanette Lim, Wim Lammen, Inna Stepchuk, Elisabeth van der Sman, Mar Palmeros-Parada, Novel aircraft propulsion and availability of alternative, sustainable aviation fuels in 2050, NLR-TP-2022-321, 33rd Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), Stockholm, 2022 [To appear]

Objectives, project partners, collaborative methodology

This project has received funding from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 864089. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Clean Sky 2 JU members from outside the European Union.

The TRANSCEND website reflects only the author’s view. The JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.